HR departments use the Bradford factor to determine the impact of employee absences on an organization. This factor is based upon the idea that shorter, more frequent, and unplanned absences can be more disruptive than longer absences. You can also find more about the Bradford points calculator from

How is Bradford’s factor score calculated?

Bradford factor scores are calculated based on absences over a specified period, typically 52 weeks.

This is the formula:

B=S2 x D


The score for Bradford factor B

S = Total number of spells (instances), of absence for the individual during the specified period

D = The total number of days that the individual was absent for the given period

What are the Bradford factor scores?

Employers may set thresholds at which Bradford factors scores are considered to be problematic. These thresholds can lead to interventions like written and verbal warnings, and even dismissal. These thresholds are often used to discourage employees from taking sick days.

Employers with serious medical conditions, such as cancer, must be protected by their employers. Employers should also ensure that absence policies, including the use of Bradford factor scores, do not discriminate against employees who have disabilities. Employers have the legal right to leave to care for dependents. These unplanned absences should therefore not be included in Bradford factor calculations.